The records required a special sapphire stylus and a vertically responsive reproducer for playback. An example was those made by the New York Judson Studios, starting in about or and running into the s.
Each record was 12", made of standard shellac, started in the inner groove and had a locked groove at the outer edge. Some radio transcription discs had both outside and inside-start as a way to maintain the fidelity levels when the record was turned over. Inventor Thomas Edison , who always favored the cylinder for all its advantages, also cut his discs with vertically modulated grooves from their introduction in until a year or two before his company's demise in Edison Disc Records.
Edison pioneered fine groove discs that played for up to five minutes per inch side; they were very thick to remain perfectly flat and played back with a precision-ground diamond stylus.
A commercially unsuccessful extension of the system introduced grooves nearly twice as fine as those of microgroove LPs, yielding playing times of up to 20 minutes per side at 80 RPM and again requiring a special diamond stylus. When using a modern stereo cartridge to play these or other vertical-cut monophonic recordings, the polarity of one channel must be inverted at some point before the two channels are combined to produce a mono signal, as is desirable; otherwise, they largely cancel each other out, leaving little more than surface noise audible.
Before the development of the single-groove stereo system circa , at least three companies: Cook Records , Livingston Audio Products, and Atlantic Records , released a number of "binaural" recordings.
These were not created using binaural recording techniques, but rather one side of each record consisted of two long, continuous tracks — one containing the left channel, and the other containing the right channel.
It was intended that the buyer purchase an adapter from Cook Laboratories or a tonearm from Livingston that allowed two cartridges to be mounted together, with the proper spacing, on a single tone arm. Over 50 records were released using this format. Quadraphonic records present four channels of audio, requiring specialized pickups and decoding equipment to reproduce the two additional channels' signals from the groove.
In the s and early s, more than a thousand audiophile records were produced with audio tracks specially encoded to be played back through various noise reduction systems in order to reduce noise and increase dynamic range. Highway Hi-Fi was a system of proprietary records and players designed for use in automobiles, utilizing a slower play speed and high stylus pressure.
With their origin stretching back to the dawn of recorded sound at the turn of the 20th century,  flexible recording media have been made from a variety of materials including foil, paper, and—in the s—thin flexible vinyl known as flexi discs. Thin, flexible paper-based records were briefly popularized in the s by Hit of the Week Records and Durium Records.
They took the form of an oversized rectangular postcard with the usual address and greeting space on one side and an illustration on the other. The illustration was overlaid with a transparent plastic material into which the grooving was impressed. The recording was usually musical as the name implies. They typically played at 45 RPM. It was recommended to not write on them with a ball point pen, an invention which was just coming into common use at that time. Beginning in the s, flexible records began to be used in the form of "book records"—spiral bound paper publications and four or five flexible record sheets bound in.
A spindle hole went through the entire assembly. Book records could be opened to one of the records and completely folded back around itself, so that the whole thing could be placed on the turntable and played intact. The recordings were pressed on very thin, flexible sheets of vinyl or laminated paper , providing a mixture of economy, practical utility and novelty appeal. Flexi discs or Soundsheets were often provided by music publishers to their customers, [ citation needed ] frequently school band and orchestra directors, marching band and drum corps leaders and others, with their printed catalogs of sheet music.
The director could then hear a sample recording of the piece as they looked at an excerpt from the musical score. In the late s and early s, when computer programs and other binary data were often stored on audio cassettes, a number of microcomputer hobbyist magazines published "flexible program sheets" under various trademarked names including " Floppy ROM ", "Flexisoft", and "Discoflex".
It was also possible to connect the record player's output to the computer's cassette analog signal input port and load the data into the computer directly. Chocolate records about three inches in diameter, and small players made for them, were marketed as a novelty in Europe in — After a record wore out or ceased to amuse, it could be eaten. In , the Kingdom of Bhutan issued several unusual postage stamps that are playable miniature phonograph records.
Not very practical for actual postal use and rarely seen canceled, they were designed as revenue-generating novelties and were initially scorned as such by most stamp collectors. In the Soviet Union in the s and s, bootleg copies of banned Western music were individually recorded onto used medical x-ray film and sold on the black market. These were called " ribs " or 'Roentgenizdat'. The first discs by Berliner Gramophone were black, and that has been the standard color for gramophone records ever since.
But as early as , the Vitaphone Talking Machine Co. In the s, several companies made records of various shades of brown, including Perfect Records and Grey Gull Records. When RCA Victor launched the 7-inch 45 RPM record, they initially had eight musical classifications pop, country, blues, classical, children's, etc. According to experts at the Sarnoff Center in Princeton, New Jersey , the cost of maintaining eight vinyl colors became too high, but the different colored labels were continued, at least for popular music black and classical red, as in "Red Seal".
In the s, a distinction was made in label colors of promotional copies of 45 RPM records as well, with pop music being issued on yellow labels and country on light green.
In the s, such gimmicks started to reappear on records, especially on 7-inch and inch singles. These included using colored acetate instead of black vinyl. Available colors included clear, transparent white, red, blue, yellow and multi-hued.
Faust released their debut album with transparent vinyl and cover in , and a transparent inch of Queen 's The Invisible Man was released. In the s, the ska band Bad Manners released a single on Magnet Records called "Sampson And Delilah" that was pressed on clear vinyl, with a clear label and clear print on the label and it came in a clear sleeve.
In , American post-punk band Talking Heads released the album Speaking in Tongues ; a limited number of copies were pressed on clear vinyl and included in an elaborate plastic case designed by Robert Rauschenberg. Some recordings were released in several different colors, in a deliberate effort to sell the same product to one person multiple times as collector's items. Currently, it is common practice for hardcore punk to release records of different colors at the same time, and press a smaller number of one color than the other.
This has created a culture of hardcore record collecting based on having the same release multiple times, each copy with a different and more rare color. Adrian Snell 's album Something New Under the Sun was produced on opaque yellow vinyl, in reference to the name of the album. Kraftwerk released a inch single of " Neon Lights ," made of glow-in-the-dark plastic in Penetration released a luminous vinyl limited edition of the album Moving Targets in and the "Translumadefractadisc" Han-O-Disc punk sampler picture disc which had a silk screened luminous ink under the litho on Mylar film image of Medusa was released by The Label U.
K in The Foo Fighters ' debut single " This Is a Call " was available on inch glow-in-the-dark vinyl, and Luke Vibert also released a glow-in-the-dark inch EP in In late - early , dubstep artist Skrillex released a limited copy run of his EP Scary Monsters and Nice Sprites on inch glow-in-the-dark vinyl.
A: We Are Devo! The UK pressing came in multiple solid colors of vinyl and a picture disc edition that came with a flexi-disc the US edition, however, was plain black. From the mid s to the early s, Canadian rock singer Bryan Adams released a small number of singles on colored vinyl. Notable examples are " Christmas Time ", originally on both black and clear green vinyl and later reissued on red vinyl, and a 12" single of " Thought I'd Died And Gone To Heaven " on silver colored vinyl in , in order to commemorate the massive sales of his earlier hit single " Everything I Do I Do It For You ", which was featured in its full-length version on the disc.
Isis released their first EP Red Sea ' on tri-colored vinyl. Other bands have released records with 2 colors, divided down the middle. Alternative artist The Dandy Warhols have been known to release all their 7-inch singles on different color vinyl records, and also their LP's.
An uncolored, clear, limited release version of their album ' The Dandy Warhols Come Down ' was available at the record stores in the band's hometown in Jack White 's independent label Third Man Records often produces limited editions of their releases on colored, multi-colored and glow-in-the-dark vinyl.
American singer songwriter Madonna released her album Confessions on a Dance Floor on a double pink vinyl. Her Hard Candy album was released on a triple package, which two of these LPs are "candy swirled" vinyl discs pink-white and blue-white "candy swirled" discs like a starlight candy. The alternative band Jars of Clay released a limited edition version of their ' Inland ' album using coke bottle green for the disc. Her most current release at the time, 's Vulnicura , was released months later on limited edition double translucent neon yellow vinyl.
A picture disc has graphics visible in the grooved playing area, rather than just on an unplayable back side or large label. Picture discs have been around since the s—or since about , if postcard-size rectangular picture records are included. In the early s they were a minor gimmick in an attempt to stimulate abysmal depression-era record sales. Most of these early picture discs were simply a very thin clear plastic laminated onto a sheet of printed cardboard before being stamped in a record press.
One US series was more substantial. Some suffered from audible defects such as low-frequency noise due to a surface texture or were rapidly worn to shreds by the very heavy pickups and crude steel needles used to play records at that time. Their playing surfaces were clear vinyl and there was a sturdy aluminum core disc between the printed sheets.
The imagery was usually gaudy and done in s calendar art style. The first 'modern' rock picture disc was introduced as an assortment of artists such as MC5 and The Doors. The set was limited to copies and sold out within 2 days of being available for preorder. Shaped discs contain an ordinary grooved centre typically the same as a standard 7-inch but with a non-grooved outer rim that can be cut to any shape that does not cut into the grooves.
These oddly shaped records were frequently combined with picture discs see above ; a trend that was pushed particularly hard by UK record company branches in the mids.
Curiously, uncut test pressings of shaped discs in their original inch form - with the clear vinyl surrounds still intact - are much more sought-after by collectors than the "regular" shapes themselves.
A well known unusually shaped disc is a picture disc by Toto with the song " Africa " on side 1 and " Rosanna " on side 2. It was originally pressed in and reissued on Record Store Day in Screamo bands Jeromes Dream and Orchid released a split in the shape of a skull.
The record was considered a inch. It spun at 45 RPM and was one sided. Some came in glow in the dark, some in blood red, and some black and white.
Some extreme examples required smaller grooving than standard 7-inch such as the single "Montana" by John Linnell of the band They Might Be Giants which was in the shape of the United States. This record was problematic because record players whose tonearms returned automatically after the record finished playing often did just that before the needle actually reached the song. When these spun on the record player, they resembled a spinning saw. What you do, do you do it as an artist, or is it a hobby?
If you don't like that question, what do you have to say about true art vs. I believe art is for the artist in you and entertainment is done for an audience not the artist or the creator. How would you describe your creative progression over the years, in a brief synopsis? Perseverance is important. Do you believe in psychics, magic, ghosts, or gods? If no, then maybe you'll share your favorite conspiracy theory whether you believe it or not.
Do you have any side projects that I am not aware of? If not, what is something you'd like people to know about you, that you don't think anyone would ever ask? Would you care to name any theoretical "desert island" records, or at least releases that you think are approaching your concept of "perfect"? What is the earliest childhood memory you can or are willing to recall? Are you able to appreciate other peoples' creative work regardless of their personal shortcomings or inherent flaws?
To what extent? In s Black South Africa, a local form of pop music evolved as the disco boom died down and slowly mutated. It was often ubiquitously described as bubblegum -- usually stripped-down and. Explore releases from Ozila at Discogs. Wood siding needs more maintenance than less-expensive, low-maintenance vinyl siding, but with proper care it will outlast vinyl siding, which can fade and crack over time.
First edition limited to copies. Comes with a two-sided 8" square sized black and white info-sheet on Gilbert Bond Stock from the s. Carpark is repressing the first So Takahashi 12"!
We are keeping the attractive record sleeve and the 31 locked grooves, but So presents a new ambient track for the nisdemavastesehelasacefizin. While still retaining the ambient feel of the original track, So has introduced percussion elements into this composition.Locked groove on side B has some vocals recorded backwards so it sounds a bit creepy. Unlike most of the others this doesn't repeat the last notes of the final song, it was actually something specifically recorded for just the inner groove. GYBE - F#A# infinity - locked groove on Side B repeats the last few notes of Providence forever.